ION training opportunity

ETC is presenting a 2 day series of classes on their ION lighting console. These classes will be held in Austin at St. Edwards University on July 28th and July 29th, 2015.

More Details are available on the ETC website.

If you are interested in attending these classes, please register at Ion Training – Austin, TX (St. Edward’s U.)

These classes are not affiliated with Local 205. Please contact ETC directly.

-Todd Drga

Stage Basics: DMX

DMX is like cable television. Although your house is being pummeled with 5000 channels of garbage, you are able to safely watch the Spurs or This Old House because your TV can disregard any information it doesn’t need. Only part of the signal coming through the coaxial cable is for the station you’ve got it tuned to, and the TV only puts that part on the screen. DMX compliant equipment functions similarly in that all the fixtures, dimmers, or effects in line will only respond to the stuff they’re supposed to. This is achieved by addressing each unit and patching its address to a channel or series of channels in your system, allowing your console to communicate with each unit individually.

Time was, all the equipment manufacturers that produced intelligent lighting and such had their own communication systems and connections. Nobody’s controller could drive another company’s fixtures. That was until 1986, when USITT developed the DMX512 protocol. Pretty much all intelligent lighting equipment is DMX compliant, although some companies produce equipment that operates on their own proprietary control standards, as well.

Maintenance of DMX512 was transferred to the Technical Standards Program of the Entertainment Services and Technology Association in 1998. In 2011, however, ESTA merged with the similar British organization PLASA. Now when you google ESTA, you can find out how international travelers register for the Visa Waiver Program. And did you know DMX is also a rapper?

PLASA is now responsible for keeping what became labeled the DMX512-A protocol whole. ANSI and EIA/TIA (look them up) also have contributed to the standardization of DMX. All of these organizations have helped sculpt the way we make the lights go on, spin around, flash, and change color.

DMX is an acronym for “Digital MultipleX”. You don’t have to know what that means to know that it sounds very cool. Because it is cool. It’s probably the coolest thing that’s ever happened to live entertainment.

The 512 refers to the number of pieces of information (DMX addresses) in a network segment known as a universe. It is also the maximum number of addresses that can be commanded on a single DMX cable. So when you run data along a pipe from unit to unit, all those instruments are in the same uni- verse. To learn everything about DMX, go to or dmx-101-handbook.pdf . You could also check out Wikipedia, but like they say, “this page has some issues.”

The DMX system is digital, so information is dispersed in binary code. A series of 8 bits (1’s or 0’s) is created to represent a value between 0 and 255, with 255 being full, or 100%.

Programming is done in percentages. All values are translated into a value proportional to the 0-255 range because that’s the language the units understand. So, as applied to an intensity level, 255 is full, 50% would be around 127 in this binary format, and so on.

A single data line is capable of conveying 512 pieces of information, hence the name. These pieces of information are referred to as addresses. In its simplest form, a single unit that receives information, a dimmer, requires only one address, whereas a more complex unit may require dozens more. (A VL 4000 Spot Luminaire, in its most sophisticated control mode, requires 57 DMX addresses.)

A dimmer only has one parameter (one aspect of all the things a unit can do) to control, that being intensity (how bright the light is). That is why it only takes up one address in its universe (the single data line of 512 addresses). Units that change color, such as LED lights, generally take up 4 spots in the universe. The additional channels are for the parameters that control the intensity of individual colors and allow the board-op to mix red, green, and blue at various levels.

A moving light, like the VL 4000, requires more addresses because it has more non-intensity parameters (NIP) to control. There are four major parameter categories; intensity, focus, color, and beam, with each parameter within those categories requiring separate addresses. The focus (pan and tilt) requires at least two, but your unit might also have a fine pan and a fine tilt. So that’s four right there. You’re gonna need some color mixing, more than likely RGB, but you might have a unit that’s got amber and white LED’s too.  Five more addresses.

Beam parameters are divided into three sub-categories: form (parameters that affect the size and quality of light, like edge, zoom, iris, and frost), image (gobos and effects), and shutter (framing parameters). All these functions require individual addresses. You can see how a universe can start to feel cramped, particularly with units that have many parameters.

How a fixture’s addresses line up with its parameters is known as its channel mapping. This is the channel mapping for the Blizzard Flurry 5 in 13 channel mode:

Channel. What It Does

1. Pan
2. Pan Fine
3. Tilt
4. Tilt Fine
5. Dimmer
6. Red Intensity
7. Green Intensity
8. Blue Intensity
9. Amber Intensity
10. White Intensity
11. Color Macros
12. Strobe
13. Sound Active

There’s also a 7 channel mode, but it’s not nearly as fun. You’d use it if you if you were short on DMX channels, like if your controller had a limited number of channels or you were filling up universe space.

As for universe space, it is possible to command multiple universes in a single lighting system. The ETC ION control console, for example, has 2 DMX outputs and therefore can run 2 universes on its own. It can run even more through the use of nodes and networking. (Nodes are devices that can be installed on a network with an ethernet cable and can be configured to operate DMX addresses outside the 512 range).

Parameters are assigned a DMX value between 0 and 255. A tilt value of 50% on the board, for instance, would be received by the unit as 127 and would tell the unit to point straight down, whereas 100% would be all the way forward and 0% all the way back, or vice-versa.

Similarly, a parameter value for pan of full (255) will move the unit all the way to its extreme in one direction and a zero all the way in the other.

Color can also be manipulated in a manner in which a DMX value (or range of values) corresponds with a particular color. This is how it works for scrollers and units with color wheels, anything that has only one channel reserved for color selection. This is known as the Value Mapping of a particular unit

Typically, addresses in universe 2 would be in the range of 512-1024, and that’s what they’ll be if your plugged into the second DMX output on the board, but you can configure the nodes to begin subsequent universes with addresses such as 1001, 2001, etc., to simplify things. Addresses above 512 can be selected on the control device by actual number or by a format such as 2/129. This would be address 129 in universe 2, or actual address 641. Or address 1029 if you have universe 2 beginning with DMX address 1001 for less arithmetic.

All of these aspects are controlled by separate DMX addresses. Not all intelligent fixtures are capable of all these things, but the ones that are occupy a lot of space in the universe.

Lighting units in the same universe can receive data by running the DMX from the DMX ‘out’ of one to the DMX ‘in’ of the next. This linking of the units together is known as a daisy chain. The DMX standard allows for up to 32 units to be installed on a single data line at a distance of up to 4000 feet, though some manufacturers recommend that you don’t go that far without the use of an isolated optical splitter/repeater. This allows the data line to go farther and split off in multiple directions, each being capable of linking up to 32 more units. Using Y cables or T connectors won’t work. The signal needs to be regenerated and all branches optically isolated from each other.

DMX cable typically is equipped with 5-pin XLR connectors. A positive and negative wire create a balanced signal in which any interference will effect both signals equally and therefore be eliminated. DMX cable also contains a zero voltage ground wire, but pins 4 and 5 are not necessary in standard DMX application. They are there to perform functions like communicate information about the unit, like lamp hours or operating temperatures, back to the controller. Some manufacturers also use pins 4 and 5 for applications that are specific to their own equipment, often at voltages that are potentially damaging to standard DMX compliant devices. You probably don’t have to worry about this; just use the materials you are provided with on the gig and all will go swimmingly.

Since only 3 wires are necessary to run DMX, a 5 to 3-pin adapter can be used to incorporate 3 pin DMX cable and instrument inputs. The XLR connectors are the same as those used on audio cable, but microphone cable should not be used to transmit DMX. (XLR refers to the physical shape and characteristics of the connector; Cannon X connector with a Latch and Rubber guard). A DMX signal passes 250,000 bits of information per second. It’s way more complex than an audio signal and needs specialized protection from interference. While any 3 pin cable will probably work, especially with a low number of units and at short distances, it would be susceptible to signal deterioration. In other words, it might make your intelligent lighting act really stupid.

So when you’re running data along a pipe from unit to unit, all those instruments are in the same universe.

BTW: Protocol means “system of standards.”

Safety Everywhere

by Joseph Martin

While we tout safety as a virtue, I have found that in many areas of our industry we are either non-compliant or ignore simple things we can do to make our jobs easier and safer. I find in our local that the membership does work safely. We are great about making sure enough hands are on a heavy object and asking others for help when it is needed. While this covers a major part of the issues we deal with assembling road shows, there are many details we miss, specifically with PPE (personal protection equipment) and fall arrest.

Fall arrest is far and away the worst safety equipment issue we face today in our venues in Austin. While there are some notable good things we stay on top of (fall arrestors in the Long Center box booms) these improvements are to a fairly modern building after years of increased OSHA regulation on high work. I know that it is practically impossible to ask for a fall arrest to be available every time we climb a ladder over 6 feet, but we need to question ourselves where fall arrest is practical and necessary. Would it help? Would it make the work safer and more comfortable to perform? For example, the hinged grid opening in the Long Center is a huge falling danger to anyone working around it. Never have I heard anyone from employee to management say anything about wearing harnesses near the opening, just to “be careful.” Note I’m just using this as an example, not to call out or shame the Long Center. Traditionally, riggers don’t ever have to wear harnesses on the grid and we aren’t used to bringing them up. But this is a special exception to that standard that has been overlooked. There are many other work locations in this town that need evaluation. Careful as careful may be, accidents happen, and the conversation needs to move forward to instill a culture of safety. Any task that presents a mortal danger needs to have a counter to take mortality out of the equation. I know that extra 5 minutes to put on a harness and clip off to the beam adds time to the day, but it could also save a life.

The worst offender of all the venues in town is the Erwin Center, where riggers climb the 110’ roof steel with no dedicated lines for fall arrest. The venue was built before there were any regulations regarding fall arrest. As a result, the riggers there, including myself, either climb without harness or use a harness mostly for equipment management. Only in extremely rare cases do we actually use harnesses for fall arrest and positioning. Everyone has to be vetted as a safe, experienced climber/rigger to be allowed on the steel. That doesn’t change the fact that every time riggers go up, they are at risk of losing their lives.

If I make any points in this article, my biggest one would be that even with years of experience and practice, the danger is still present. And wouldn’t it be great if that danger didn’t have to be so dangerous? As professionals doing a dangerous job, we deserve to have the necessary systems in place to prevent death. While not a union venue, many of us work at the Erwin Center and need to work harder to instill a culture of safety and encourage our brothers and sisters to use the tie-off method they find comfortable and safe. For me, it involves taking a 22kn climbing sling, basketing the beam or safe tie-off point nearby, and clipping it into my central front positioning ring. This allows for clean movement along the beam, and, in the event of slippage or an accident pulling me off the beam, I would slide off to the side or under it, within easy distance to pull myself back up without taking the damaging shock load of a fall on a shock absorbing lanyard. This also prevents the need for a rescue operation, which would need to happen within 15-20 minutes of a fall to prevent death due to suspension trauma. It is important to note that my method works, but it is by no means standard and should not be taken as such.

Every industry related to construction/physical work is highly regulated in terms of safety, except for entertainment. We often feel like those rules don’t apply to us, but they very much do. OSHA is ramping up its stance on entertainment safety, and it’s high time. I have noticed more and more touring companies coming through with hard hat requirements. A show coming up at the Erwin will require all riggers to wear hard hats. It is important to note that a hard hat is not for the sole purpose of protecting your head from falling objects. Ever been hit in the head with a board or pipe someone was carrying as they turned around? I’ve seen guys have their temples busted open from getting slammed with a piece. Wearing a hard hat is not about how much you mistrust the people around you or above, it’s about protecting your extremely valuable head. “Nerdy” looks be damned. It’s a job not a fashion show.

There are many jobs where a hard hat is not required, and that is ok. We need to be aware of hard hats and their usefulness during large jobs such as Dell World, big road shows with lots of cases/things flying, and, of course, at the Erwin Center.

For us tall people, I have found a hard hat to be invaluable as my natural height puts my head closer to objects I have to duck to avoid. There have been a few occasions during installs where I have been crawling around in an unfamiliar ceiling and my head found the obstruction before my eyes did. Due to wearing a hard hat, I didn’t injure myself, just my pride. In the instance of Ballroom A at the ACC, I know a few riggers who have caught a roofing nail, scraping their head enough to draw blood. A hardhat in this instance completely eliminates that risk or even the minor annoyance of being occasionally poked in the head by a sharp object, which speaks to the scenario of making work more comfortable. Remember, it isn’t about how awesome you are or how long people have been doing it; it’s about eliminating risk and injury.

Without eyes to see with, our job is impossible. Drilling, cutting, grinding, and other fun particle related activities must be accompanied by the proper eye protection. A metal or wood splinter flying into your eyes can result in something minor as a single-day annoyance or as major as a lifelong diability. Putting on a pair of safety glasses is the easiest, fastest form of PPE and it is of paramount importance. Before conducting a particle related task, take 2 seconds and put on a pair of safety glasses. If you know a piece of overhead scenery has excess sawdust inside of it and will fall out of it upon removal, go get some safety glasses. If you are asked to do a task requiring grinding, go get the facemask. All the major theaters in town carry these amenities, and we need to be on top of asking for them before engaging in a particle related activity.

Safety-toe shoes need to be on everyone’s mind the next time they go shopping for a new pair of work shoes. I know there are many common complaints with this type of footwear among stagehands, but technology has eliminated many of those. Gone are the days of cumbersome steel-toed full boots. You can find great aluminum or composite-toe shoes that are styled like athletic shoes and weigh just a little more than a regular shoe. A foot injured by a heavy road case or piece of scenery will put someone out of work for weeks. Don’t let that person be you.

I wrote this article because I hate seeing and hearing about my brothers and sisters getting hurt on the job when the injury could have easily been prevented by a simple and practical solution. In 2015, we have already had 2 deaths in the stage industry. I don’t ever want one of those stories coming out of Austin. My intention is not to be preachy but to raise awareness of things we need to be thinking about.

The industry is modernizing. We shouldn’t be working like it is still the 80’s. Improvements in safety are good for us and our friends and family that care very much about our well being. If you don’t want to do it for yourself, do it for your mother/brother/significant other. Be aware of yourself, be aware of others, and stay vigilant in suggesting ways to make our venues safer, more enjoyable places to do what we love.

The Grateful Dead’s “Wall Of Sound”

In March of 1974, the Grateful Dead unveiled a sound system unlike any that had ever been, or that the world has seen (heard) since. It was designed by audio engineer Owlsley “Bear” Stanley, who had recently been released from prison, and at the time was the largest portable (somewhat) PA ever. The main component of the system was a huge wall of speakers erected upstage, behind the band. This mountain of speakers became known as the “wall of sound”. The system was unique due to its size, (it is reported as consisting of around 600 speakers, weighing 75 tons, and requiring 26,000-28,000 watts of continuous power, depending on the current point in its evolution) as well as its functionality and quality.

The system was actually six individual PA systems operating independently but together. There was a separate system for vocals, lead guitar, rhythm guitar, bass, drums, and piano. Each had its own set of amps, processing, and speakers. Band members had control of the area of the wall that was providing reinforcement for their particular instrument, as well as the levels of their vocals. A main (or monitor) mixing console was not required for the operation of “the wall”.

The challenges associated with such a set-up are obvious, the least of which not being the requirements for transportation and installation of this behemoth. The time it took to load in made it necessary for the band to tour with three complete packages and leapfrog much in the way that a broadway show would send gear in advance. There were over 20 crew members responsible for putting it all together, with assistance from local labor (much of which was provided by members of the Hell’s Angels motorcycle club, which added an interesting dynamic).

This was actually the band’s second attempt at creating such a complex audio arrangement. The first experiment came about a year earlier and was met with tragic results. Every tweeter blew as the band began their first number.

The installation process would begin with the construction of a large scaffolding rig on the downstage side of where the speaker wall was to be erected. As the wall grew, block-and-falls were employed to hoist speakers, which were essentially wooden boxes affixed with speaker cones, up to the higher levels. The speakers were tied to the hoists with rope, raised up and landed on top of the last level. There were also chain motors that were used to lift some of the more obnoxiously massive parts, such as the cylindrically shaped structure of cones that was the section of the wall which provided reinforcement of high and mid-range vocals.

I imagine this was probably some of the oddest seeming stage work to ever take place. A bunch of gangsters building something equivalent to the pyramids while dogs and small children run around on stage. There was even some occasional breast-feeding.

Conventionally, main speaker arrays are located in the downstage corners of the stage, either flown or ground-based. Monitors are used to direct sound back towards the band but, although configured to the performers’ preferences, it sounds nothing like what the audience is hearing. The upstage location of the wall allows the band to hear exactly the same thing that the audience hears, but it also makes the avoidance of feedback somewhat tricky.

What happens, typically, is sound enters a microphone, is amplified and pushed out a speaker, goes back into the mic and this loop pattern creates some of the most awful noise known to human ears. Several steps were needed to prevent this phenomenon from ruining the effectiveness of the whole system.

First of all, the gargantuan cylindrical structure which brought the higher end of the vocals was placed at the top. It produced more horizontal than verticle dispersion, so they could keep most of the sound out of the mics. The low end speakers were arranged in columns lower in the wall and were less likely to cause feedback. Regardless of the physical separation of all the speakers in the vocal system, it was designed in a way to allow all frequencies to be heard equally well. That’s what they say.

In addition to just putting the speakers up high, more technical efforts were needed in order to further minimize the presence of feedback. The vocal mics were actually matched pairs of condenser mics run “out of phase”. The mics were arranged one on top of the other a few inches apart. (60 mm, actually. Not sure if that matters). The band members would sing into the top one, and the sound from this would be amplified like normal. The mics in reverse phase would combine signals in a “differential summing amp” (don’t ask) and cause all sound common to both mics to cancel each other out, thus eliminating feedback from the overall mix. That was hard.

The parts of the system associated with the instruments were slightly less complicated. Each had its own system of amps and crossovers, which would send different frequncies to different parts of the wall, but one of the more interesting aspects of the instrumental amplification was how Phil Lesh’s bass was integrated into the system.

The bass was reproduced quadrophonicaly, which is like stereo times two. Instead of just a left and a right there were actually 4 sound “areas”. Coincidentaly, there are four strings on the bass. It was configured so that each string was on its own channel, and the signal from each was bussed through its own system of amplification and projected from its own group of speakers. Each string came out of a different place in the wall.

The kick drum used its own amplification channel and a column of sixteen 15 inch speakers. That’s sixteen 15 inch speakers, all kick drum. It doesn’t necessarily mean it’s loud, although it can be. It was more about having head room. If all the speakers aren’t being pushed to their capacity the resulting sound is going to be much cleaner.

Amplification of all the instruments and vocals was acheived in a manner in which each speaker was dedicated to a small portion of the entire sound output.
This resulted in an impeccably clean sound, almost entirely free of intermodulation distortion. In conventional speaker arrangements, sounds of different qualities and frequencies compete with each other as they cause speaker cones to behave differently than if they were just producing one type of sound. So a sound system could produce as much volume as this one with the use of much less power, but it would be inferior in overall quality and lack the ability to retain clarity in distances of up to a half mile, or be as cool, as this one.

The wall of sound can be seen in the documentary/concert film The Greatful Dead Movie. It was filmed during a 5 night run at San Francisco’s Winterland Ballroom and contains concert footage as well as accounts of the technical aspects of the Dead’s live performance. It’s the third greatest rock and roll movie of all time, right behind “This Is Spinal Tap” and The Band’s The Last Waltz, which, perhaps not coincidentaly, was also filmed at Winterland.

There is a production credit for IA 16 which rolls by as time lapse footage reveals the deconstruction of the scaff. (Man those guys are fast). I wouldn’t assume that too many of the Hell’s Angels are cardholders, but there’s some representation happening. Probably working under a CBA.

This sit-down in San Francisco marked the end of the road, litteraly, for this mighty wall. The rising costs of fuel and logistical headaches forced the band to abandon this expirement after about 50 shows in six months. It also turned out that the Angels didn’t exactly create a peaceful work environment. These factors also led the band to decide to “retire” themselves. They only played a handful of shows in 1975 and didn’t really start touring again, with a more conventional sound system from here on out, until the middle of 1976. The band would remain whole (relatively) for another twenty years until all the things caught up with Jerry in 1995. (Crying a little right now).

A lot of this might seem pretty complicated, but remember, it was really just some dudes (and one chic) smoking a bunch of weed and screwing around every night.

Stewards Corner: Stewards Basics 101

Glad to see that Stagecall is back up and running.  It is an important way for our members to stay connected with each other, as well as disseminate information and ideals to the workers in our trade.  A big “thank you” to the newly organized Newsletter Committee and it’s editor for jump-starting this periodical.

As the Stewards Committee has been actively involved in educating and bringing along a new crop of qualified job site stewards, I have received some interest from members about stepping up to represent their brother and sisters as an advocate in the workplace and becoming an IA Steward.  Perhaps at this point it would be best to outline some of the basic requirements, qualities, and responibilitites of becoming an effective job site union steward.  Laying these out in one issue here would be next to impossible.  So, toward that end, I will elaborate on these topics through subsequent issues of Stagecall.

Stewards face a variety of problems: the mechanics of grievance handling, the wide variety of problems that members bring them, dealing effectively with management, and keeping in touch with union leadership.  The following are a few thoughts to help the new steward get through their first introductions to the job and become an effective advocate for the union and the contract.  Lets call it “Stewards Basic 101.”

1) Enthusiasm
One of the problems you’ll encounter is negative attitudes from some co-workers.  This could be from former officers, members with more seniority, or just plain anti-union folks.  They’ll tell you that your efforts are fruitless, things never change, you’re wasting your time.  All organizations need new caring people to keep them strong and growing.  You have every right to be enthusiastic about your local.  Don’t let naysayers discourage you from your duties.

2) The Long View
A good Steward does not develop overnight.  It’s a process that takes time.  You’ll have to learn to be patient.  Remember that your goal is to develop your skills over time, and in the process you’ll build respect from your fellow members and management.  Like the old sage, take the Long View.

3) Learning Attitude
You’ll have a lot to learn: the contract, past practices, and the way your union and management operate.  You aren’t expected to know all the answers, but you must be the kind of person that enjoys finding them.  Ask questions, and then keep asking them.  You’ll learn a lot about people, the nature of working attitudes, unions and labor relations.  So these things should appeal to you.

4) Dealing with Management
Management will often test stewards to see how well you represent your co-workers.  This comes in many forms: denying you reasonable time to carry out your duties, refusing to give you extension of time to research a first step towards a grievance.  They may deny you access to records in a clear-cut case of injustices in a disciplinary complaint.  All this is clearly a breach of the contractual agreement, as well as Federal Law.  Learning to work with the particulars of each management situation, while enforcing the contract can be tricky.  Your skill at this, with time, will improve.

5) Organizing Approach
As stated, you don’t need to know answers to all questions posed to you.  Learn to organize your co-workers varied skills and then access them with your problems.  The whole point of the trade union movement is power in numbers, working with others to achieve common goals.

I hope this article helps anyone contemplating becoming an advocate and steward for your fellow co-workers.  As mentioned, I will be laying out more on this topic in future articles in an attempt to answer some of the questions about this union function.  With hard work, a determined and positive pro-labor attitude, and a willingness to teach and mobilize your brothers and sisters, you will become a vital part of a prosperous and vibrant union.  Not a small task, but certainly worthy of great respect for stepping up.

Yours in Solidarity,
Brother Jim Ford, IATSE 205

Winter 2012

Stewards Corner: Weingarten Rights

One of the most valuable protections a worker has is the right to representation when called in by your employer or management. A steward’s presence as an union advocate can sometimes mean the difference between someone being railroaded out of a job or falsely accused, and not having justice prevail. Weingarten Rights are key when discussing representation. In 1975, the US Supreme Court said that during an investigatory interview, employees have the right to request union assistance and can refuse to answer questions until the request is honored.

Under Weingarten, in order for the worker to have the legal right to representation during a meeting with management, the following conditions must be met:

1) Is it an investigatory interview?

If the employee is expected to answer questions concerning wrongdoing that might lead to his dismissal or discipline he is eligible for union representation. Discussions pertaining to job performance do not automatically include the right to representation. The right entails only in situations where it could lead to discipline.

2) Does the employee believe that the discussion may lead to discipline?

Whether the belief is reasonable or not,it is a judgement call based on the circumstances. If the employer merely wants to convey info to a worker then representation is not necessary. However, the burden falls on the worker to decide motive.

Unlike the police MIRANDA RIGHTS, where your right to silence is given prior to speaking, employers have no legal obligation to advise a worker of their right to representation. It is up to the individual employees to know their rights. So, a good rule is to stay cool, quiet and respectful, if urged by employer to discuss the matter.

Call for your Rep and present the following Declaration:

‘WEINGARTEN DECLARATION’ (aka Weingarten Rights)

For workers’ own protection, workers should be instructed to read or hand this statement to management before the start of any meeting that could lead to discipline:


In the future, we will again be distributing ‘WEINGARTEN RIGHTS’ cards for each union member to add to their tool kit. Know your rights and use them when needed.

Jim Ford

Stewards Committee

IATSE Local 205

Stewards Corner: Sexual Harassment

As a steward faces many challenges daily, there is an important topic that they must learn to handle in a professional manner: it’s called sexual harassment in the workplace. And the responsibility falls not only on stewards but all of the members of the union, as well.

Incidents involving sexual harassment are particularly challenging. The incidents involve strong emotions, misuse of power, and the tension that historically surrounds men and women in our society. Our union has an obligation to insure that its members are sensitive to the issues of sexual harassment.  Additionally, it must create an environment where victims are comfortable turning to someone in the union for assistance. This means we must build an educated membership on this topic. Also, we need stewards who know how to investigate for possible follow up grievances.

So first off, here’s a brief definition of Sexual Harassment:
“Any unwelcome sexual advance, request for sexual favors, or any verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.”1  Sexual Harassment,  a form of gender discrimination, includes “lewd proposals, sexual jokes, and unwanted physical contact.”2  So in some cases this falls under legal heading of civil rights laws.

As good brothers and sisters we must be sensitive to the victim’s concerns. Victims, most of whom are women, can feel powerless, anxious, or even guilty. Standing by them sends a powerful message of unity. Stewards need to listen, record, and document all the details of any incident, and other members should immediately report these situations to their steward. As members we must show support to all victims and create a discrimination free environment.

If the supervisor is the offender, he may deny he made advances. He may blame the employee’s poor work performance or make other excuses. If it’s by a co-worker, he may claim their behavior was “in good fun,” or she “just can’t take it.”

Here you might remind them that if it was his daughter, wife, mother, or sister, he wouldn’t want her treated like that. Sometimes members are just ignorant about the issue of harassment. I say ignorant, not stupid. Ignorant means lack of knowledge.

The best strategy for dealing with this issue is a proactive one: we must educate ourselves on this subject before incidents occur. Legally the employer is responsible for the atmosphere we work in. However, it is our responsibility to educate ourselves and our brothers and sisters to stand up against this offending conduct.

Why? Because it’s the right thing to do.

Jim Ford, Chair, 205 Stewards’ Committee


1 Legal Rights of Union Stewards, 4th edition, Robert M. Schwartz

2 The Union Steward’s Complete Guide, 2nd edition, David Prosten

Stage Lingo

Bible – Stage Manager’s script with all cues noted.

Bobtail – Short semi, a box truck used to transport stage equipment.

Boneyard – Where empty cases are stored.

Bounce – A thin and light colored drop used to “bounce” light off of.

Bring It In – Lower the pipe.

Buddy (Uncle Buddy) – Friction tool used on the fly rail to help control the movement of out-of-weight battens.

Bull Lines – Ropes pulled from the floor to assist the flyrail in overhauling heavily loaded battens.

Bump – To make an instantaneous lighting change or to quickly flash a light.  Also, the command to make a tiny adjustment to a chain motor, either in or out.

Cable Stretcher – Tool used when you need just 6” more to make a connection. Rare.

Carpenter Focus – When the flyman nails lights on a pipe with an adjacent batten. Best when lights were focused.

Carptrician – Person who performs work which spans grey area between carpentry and electrics.

Coffee – A 15 minute break about two hours into a call in which stagehands eat as many donuts as they can.

Courtesy tab- End of a piece of tape that’s folded over and stuck to itself for easy removal.

Cyclorama (Cyc) – A curtain positioned upstage and sometimes concave to include stage sides. Used with lighting effects to create the illusion of sky or infinite space.

Dead – No longer in use.

Deck – Stage floor.

Dock – Place where post show socializing takes place.

Drop – Goods hung from the air, scenic element.

Ghost Light – Light left onstage after all work is over to keep the ghost company. Also a safety feature for humans.

Gobo – lit. “Go between optics.”  A perforated piece of metal that alters the shape of a light beam, generally used in ellipsoidal fixtures. Also made of glass.

Goods – Fabrics suspended in air by battens, scenic elements.

Hod – Large cable loom.

House – Seating area in a theatre.

IA (IATSE) – International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees and Studio Mechanics.

Jesus bolt – Pan bolt on a c-clamp, sometimes referred to as a f*** nut

Kabuki – Special effect drop that falls swiftly to reveal talent/other dramatically

Leko – Ellipsoidal fixture in general, originally Lekolite introduced in 1933

Lightwalk – To be onstage as light levels are set. This is done so the designer can see light on people

Loom – Assortment of cables taped together at intervals to keep a long run cleaner and more manageable.

LX – Electrics

Main rag – Downstage most drape, hides whole stage from view

Merde – Pre-show good luck saying in ballet

Mouse – To use a piece of tie line, sash cord, or rope to secure something in place

Olio – A single (often painted) drop. Also, a short piece in between acts in a burlesque or minstrel show.

Overhaul – To bring heavy goods all the way in to the deck. Often requires assistance from loading rail and bull lines.

Parterre – Upper part of the main seating level

Phoning it in – Usually in reference to the talent half-assing a performance

Pigeon Plate – metal floor plate

Rep. (Repertory) – A space or company which performs several different plays alternately throughout the season. Also refers to lighting, staging, etc. which is used with minimal manipulation.

Ring out – To adjust equalization so as to eliminate monitor feedback; also older term for trouble-shooting electrics

Roadie – Technician who travels in support of a show/artist.

Rub – Assistance from the loading rail in pulling the purchase line which moves a heavy pipe.

Sheave – A wheel with a groove on its edge for holding a belt, rope or cable. Sometimes used synonymously with “pulley”.

Sitz (Sitzprobe) – German for seated rehearsal, often first rehearsal with talent and orchestra, sans blocking.

Sky hook – Special rigging tool that allows one to safety off to the sky.

Spark – To turn on a follow spot.

Sport bitching – What you hear around the water cooler.

Sprinkles – Optimal donut topping, especially on pink icing.

Strike – What you get when you knock down all the pins.

Take It Out – Raise the pipe.

Toi Toi Toi – Pre-show good luck saying in opera.

Tootsie Roll – While folding goods, the tendency for goods to roll up instead of folding cleanly.

Vomitorium – Exit from the house.

Wedge – A stage audio monitor.

West Coast – To gather a drop as it is lowered in, and to tie it in a bunch either to a pipe or truss, or to itself for storage.

Whoa – A word used while riding a horse.

Wilson – In cribbage a high point hand at the end of a game that you will never count.

Rigging Primer






Hello Brothers and Sisters of the 205! I have created this guide in hopes that all in our local who want to pass the ETCP Theater and Arena Rigging exams have the resources necessary to pass with flying colors.  As someone who is a certified Theater Rigger, I have taken the exam and know what it takes to acquire the title. While individual study is necessary, the essential key to success is group study. Throughout the year, I will be holding study sessions for everyone who is interested in testing for the certification. These sessions will be mostly on the math aspects of the test, as most experienced riggers can already pass the general knowledge portions. Those with an interest in rigging but not the test should attend the Beginner Rigging Class, as everyone in the field deals with rigging on a daily basis. I encourage everyone to dig deep into the knowledge pool of rigging. The principles that we use in stage rigging apply to many other trades, and will serve you well in your career. Much of it comes straight from high steel ironwork and ship/crane rigging. In your studies, it is also important to brush up your knowledge of mathematical and general physics. Everything we do as riggers is directly related to the properties of gravity and geometry/trigonometry. A solid background in these subjects will be a big help. I wish everyone success in their journey, and I am always here to help! If you have any questions, please contact me here.


Unfortunately, the information that needs to be given in this section can not be pulled from a website. That used to be the case, but some of the authors listed below figured out that this information is valuable, and should be compensated for their time and effort in compiling it. While I know the books are pricey, they are the definitive texts in the field. Any serious rigger with intensions of moving on up in the entertainment world needs this information. You will have it for life. The texts here should be studied more than anything above. The respective books on Arena and Theater are mostly what the ETCP test is written from, and have the most official  information on the subject to date.  The math book by Delbert Hall is a fantastic addition to your arsenal. While Arena Rigging and Stage Rigging Handbook: 3rd Edition explain the math, Delbert teaches it in a way that doesn’t blow most humans minds. The book is totally optional, but will help immensely.  When the book was a website a few years ago, I used it to study and I would have been much worse off without it.

Stage Rigging Handbook: 3rd Edition -For Theater test takers

Harry Donovan’s Arena Rigging – For Arena test takers

Rigging Math Made Simple – All disciplines

Continue for links containing detailed manufacturer information on rigging materials.


Here are links to many of the major manufacturers that provide rigging hardware for the entertainment industry. The information you are looking for are the material data that specifies weight capacity, tolerances, and acceptable uses. Arena applicants should pay special attention to shackle, chain motor, and wire rope specifications, while Theater applicants need to pay special attention to hardware used in a counterweight system (i.e. batten clamps, tracks, hand line, 1⁄4” wire rope, trim chain, loft blocks, head blocks, and SCH40 1 1⁄2 pipe)

Types of Shackles:

This page shows what types of shackles you might encounter out in the field. Anchor shackles are what we most commonly use, you will likely never see chain shackles out in the entertainment world outside of special circumstances. If you do see a chain shackle, remember they are only to be used with one rigging attachment. A bridle hung from a chain shackle will place a side load on the straight vertical members causing an unsafe situation. Remember that an anchor shackle can only be used in a bridle if the bridle angle is more than 30 degrees. Anything less will be considered a side load on the shackle. For example, when we do low-low bridles at the Erwin center, we use a pear ring to make the apex of the bridle to prevent side loading of the hardware.

Master/Pear rings:

Make sure you scroll all the way on this page. It covers a variety of hardware from different manufacturers you will see in the field. As described above, this is the hardware you need to use for any bridle over 30 degrees or when there are more than 2 rigging attachments in the shackles bell. While it is not recommended you do so, sometimes the only way to get a point where you need it is through the utilization of this hardware. As long as you are using a Master/Pear ring that is rated at least 5:1 the tension you are placing on the bridle, all is well.

Wire Rope/Eye Bolts/Chain/Hooks/Turnbuckles/Swages/Clips/Thimbles/Snatch blocks:

Here is one of the greatest resources I have ever found on the subject of wire rope. Contained is not only strength ratings of many different types, but explanations of the reasoning behind structural design with wire rope as well as most everything it attaches to. Not only does it give the raw info, it lays out theory behind safe usage. All disciplines of rigging should study this well.

This page lists many of the common ropes used in counterweight and hemp systems today. Multiline II is the most common, you can see it in use at the Long Center. Stage Set X is also a variety you see in the McCullough Theater at UT. Other ropes listed on this page are much less commonly seen, but it is nice to know of their existence and material properties in case you are ever faced with a project that requires rope with a special application. These ropes come from manufacturer New England Ropes, which has been the standard in quality for entertainment industry rope needs. Most theaters you go into with a counterweight system will likely have New England Ropes, which is handy to know when ordering replacement line. When it comes down to your personal hauling line, generally any polybraid or polyester rope between 1⁄2” and 5/8” diameter with over 2000lbs tensile strength will get the job done. Your rope needs to pull through a pulley easily, and provide a good gripping surface without being hard on your hands. Do not purchase rope from a big box hardware store however temping it may be. The rope sold there is mass produced in China and does not come with an official tensile breaking strength or material data sheet. Make sure the rope you are buying is rated and batch tested. You can find rope for the same price as Home Depot through Rose Brand that is solid core polybraid and carries an official rating. Even cheaper if you buy a spool, which I highly recommend. (Custom colors!)

Track Hardware/Counterweight Hardware and Operation/Pipe Attachments:

H&H Specialties has a veritable gold mine of information on these subjects in their catalogs. Diagrams, rules of use, in depth explanation of track weight capacities and hanger spacing are all here. The PDF on Counterweight Rigging isn’t very exiting visually, but is a fantastic guide for the beginner, and a great refresh for the experienced. Spend some time here.


Check out this website to look up information on common steel material you will rig on in theaters and arenas. As a rigger, it is useful to know more than the average bear about building structure and the materials that comprise your theater/arena specifically. Always consult the building engineer in regards to the actual strength of the beams. Every building is different. In no way should the tensile strength of any material be used as a means of rating a system.

Fantastic article about chain grading and the reasoning behind chain grading. It even gives you the formula for calculating tensile strength of chain. As long as you know the size and grade, you can calculate the strength rating of any chain. Also provides links to spec sheets for every grade of chain. Note that anything under Grade 80 is not suitable for overhead lifting. Example of deck chain used in Arena rigging.

Chain Motors:

 Here you have the bread and butter of the entertainment rigging industry, the classic CM Lodestar motor series. Most road shows and rental houses will have a small army of these in varying lifting capacities. It is essential to know chain weights and motor weights to calculate your lifts. On the page, you can find the official maintenance manual for Lodestar series motors. Study this to get a really in-depth look at chain hoists, their parts, and troubleshooting. You will know much more than the average rigger. Most of the info you need to pay attention to for the tests purposes are the lifting capacities, electrical/control properties, and knowing that chain motors are rated 25% under their actual capacity to account for the small shock load produced by the initial inertia of lifting/lowering. Also note that Lodestars are rated in metric tons. Make sure to check out all the different models CM offers too. ProStars are popular for their light weight and silent operation, and are rated from 300-1000lbs, differing from the metric rated Lodestars. Make sure to note this difference when you look at the label on the butt of the motor housing.

Beam Clamps:

You will use beam clamps whenever beam clearance is too low to use traditional 5’ wire rope slings and still achieve trim height. Note that beam clamps of large capacities will not allow you to attach to steel too small to take the load it is rated for. In other words, if your rig is going into a building with 2” angle trussing (typical in small ballrooms and venues), you won’t be able to rig your show with your 1 ton beam clamps. Better hope your points are rated for less than a half ton!

Stewards Corner: Zero Tolerance Policy


                In past articles I have tried to shy away from fluff pieces that just mimic old inefficient policies of dealing with important topics. Our members need perspective and honest appraisals on important issues that face our workers today. With that in mind, I have tried in the past to address the issue of lax and less than forceful representation by our leaders, sexual harassment in the workplace, and political activism.

This piece involves the complicated issue of suspension and termination from your job, due to drug test failures and drug use by our workers, either in the work place or on your personal time.  This issue tends to be very divisive in its opinions by our members.  There are strong feelings for and against the implementation of heavy-handed drug policy with vigorous enforcement clauses. I make no moral judgments on anyone’s opinion either way.  I will simply attempt to lay out some legal aspects maybe not commonly known by our members; and yes, I will try to point out some improvements that can be brought to bear.  My only motives are to educate and to keep our technicians on the job and working.

—Zero Tolerance Policy—

                Bosses LOVE “zero tolerance policies.”  One arbitrator called them “the last refuge of weak managers.” In my opinion, he should also to include weak union negotiators in his statement.  Hard to believe, but several of our current contracts rely on a zero tolerance policy regarding what might be called egregious behavior in the workplace.  This could refer to fighting, threatening violence, stealing, drug test failures, verbal abuse, sexual harassment, felony convictions, etc.  For our discussion purposes, let’s narrow our view to drug test failures.  This could mean just using pot, not just the harder drugs which are in no way acceptable to our professional standards. Hey, come on, some have called out liberal Austin as a marijuana local.  Be that as it may, these discipline policy issues are on the rise.

A ZERO TOLERANCE POLICY provides that workers who commit a specific infraction (failed drug test) be immediately discharged with no consideration for mitigating circumstances such as an employee’s long standing seniority or past record.  Worse yet, if an accident occurs they test all parties, even those collaterally damaged by the incident. These workers are clearly victims in the incident, only to be re-victimized by having to pass a urine test.

If the union questions the policy, the employer is likely to cite contractual language which gives it the right to issue rules and regulations.  This is part of the “managements rights” section in most contracts.  Management can set rules, policies, and regulations for employment.  Arbitrators generally uphold these rules when they are used to maintain production quotas and insure a safe working environment (something they are legally bound to do).

However, even if the contract’s management rights clause waives the union’s right to negotiate on the contents of the rule, the employer must allow the union to bargain on how it will be applied.  I believe this tactic has eluded our leadership.  Our representatives simply look to a strict interpretation of contract language for what they can and can’t do. But, as labor attorney and writer Robert Schwartz shows, there is a tactic to combat, somewhat, even the strictest of contract language. I believe Local 205’s negotiators are not aware of this tactic and simply say “it’s not in the contract,” believing they can’t argue, discuss, or negotiate on the contents of the rule; or bargain on how it’s applied. To clarify, we have an option to challenge the conditions of the violation and we are not doing it. I believe our negotiators just look at strict contract wording, which is very limiting as the final word.   And apparently Schwartz agrees with my interpretation.

These overly broad zero tolerance policies can lead to grossly unfair punishments.  And some of our working brothers and sisters have suffered because of them.

Let me explain.  When an employee whose conduct should result in a warning or short suspension is discharged because of a zero tolerance policy, the union should assert – through the Business Agent and Stewards’ Committee (Grievance Committee) – that the policy violates the Just Cause clause of the contract.  Fair notice, disparate (uneven) treatment might be a good reasonable argument.  This is one of several possible tactics to argue against a mandatory drug test. At the very least, it may mitigate the severity of the punishment.  It would be to our benefit for our contracts to have language – that employers deem reasonable – more clearly defining the union’s contract interpretation.

Summary discharge is contrary to the basic principle of just cause for discipline.  Outdated as it is, it’s the old master vs. servant attitude that employers constantly try to enforce.  Not to mention, if discharge was instituted before test results or a good faith investigation of facts, we can argue the employee did not receive due process.

It is widely accepted that the just cause concept compels an employer to weigh the gravity of the offense, consider the mitigating and extenuating circumstances, and apply the least severe penalty that is likely to lead the employee to correct his or her mistakes.  A disciplinary firing and drug test failure can have long term negative effects on an employee’s career.

Zero tolerance unilaterally extinguishes these just cause-bargained protections.

Union Silence on the Issue

                The union will have a hard time contending that zero tolerance violates the contract if it has failed to object before the current discharges.  The employer will undoubtedly argue that past practice shows agreement with the policy.  Management will never want to appear to condone illegal recreational drug usage by its employees.  As a tactic to overcome that contention, we, the union, should distinguish the current cases from the earlier cases, stating that current cases more clearly violate the just cause standard.

Other Arguments

                Unions can use the wording of zero tolerance policies against the employer.  A policy might state that a violation “may” lead to immediate discharge.  This can be interpreted to mean that dismissal is only one of several possible alternatives.  Similarly, if a policy states the offender is “subject” to discharge or punishment “up to and including discharge,” the union may have some wiggle room.

It is hard to believe that our International and local representatives signed on to this overly broad zero tolerance policy.  Although we as stewards, reps, and advocates can raise defenses such as lack of evidence, lax of enforcement, disparate treatment, and due process, we will be fighting a battle with one hand tied behind our backs until we get some basic change at the contract level.

Until then, in my opinion, it’s nothing short of a crapshoot to spend time and money taking these kinds of situations to arbitration.

I found a case recently in researching arbitration cases of mandatory dismissal in drug cases:

COMPARE BIOLAB INC., 114 LA 279 (BRODSKY 2000) “If required by the contract, a discharge based on a positive drug test is likely to be upheld in arbitration even without evidence of impairment.”  (*3)

GES Contract Wording

Our agreement with the Tradeshow employer GES has this kind of extreme zero-tolerance policy. I would hope the International and IA Reps would listen to our pleas to change this policy in future contracts or give us support, in both time and monies, to properly process these kinds of dismissals through the Grievance Procedure. It would surely go all the way to arbitration and that is an unfair burden on a small local like ours. Or, a much easier remedy would be to strike it from future contracts all together.



Jim Ford, chair
Stewards’ Committee
IATSE Local 205
Austin, Tx
JUST CLAUSE: A UNION GUIDE TO WINNING DISCIPLINE CASES by Robert Schwartz was the primary source for this article.


***A good contract with a good union is good business***
—John T. Dunlap, US Secretary of Labor